_The Mendele Review_: Yiddish Literature and Language (A Companion to _MENDELE_) ______________________________________________________ Contents of Vol. 04.013 31 August 2000 1) Reading Kotik (ed.) 2) _My Memoirs_, Vol. 2, Chapter 1 (Yekheskl Kotik) 3) Expanded Table of Contents of Vol. 1 of _My Memoirs_ (Yekheskl Kotik) 1---------------------------------------------------- Date: 31 August 2000 From: ed.
Subject: Reading Kotik Chapter One of Volume Two of Kotik's memoirs in the Yiddish original is archived in both romanized and Yiddish-letter form. Readers are welcome to comment on Lucas Bruyn's new English translation. His rendering of the lengthy Chapter Two of Volume Two will appear in two installments during the month of September. In this edition of _The Mendele Review_ the reader will find the author's own expanded table of contents of Volume One of his memoirs [in romanized Yiddish] (see 3 below). This can provide useful background before beginning the second volume. Romanized Yiddish text of Vol. 2, Chaper 1 at: _The Mendele Review_ vol.4.,no. 2(29.2.2000) Yiddish-letter text at: http://www2.trincoll.edu/~mendele/tmr/kotik1.pdf 2)--------------------------------------------------- Date: 31 August 2000 From: Lucas Bruyn Subject: Mayne zikhroynes, vol. 2. ch. 1 (Yekheskl Kotik) Yekheskl Kotik, _My Memoirs_, vol. 2, chapter 1 Chapter the First. After grandma's death. -- Grandfather goes to the matchmakers. -- He suddenly turns up with a wife. -- The impression it makes on the family. -- "Grandma". -- Grandfather's delight. -- His new daughters. -- Widely scattered. -- Estates. -- Where we are well-received. -- Yokheved. -- Leye. We become estranged from grandfather. -- No longer the Days of Awe of yore. Grandma died(1), but grandfather's situation got even better. Now he was the only remaining saviour and redeemer(2) to advise and guide the land-owners. They were bewildered by the revolt, the persecutions and the misery that had been meted out to them unsparingly by the iron hand of Muravyov(3). Now many of them found solace with the old but clever Arn-Leyzer and he assisted them with all their affairs. Thanks to his advice they gave up their estates, giving them in lease to Jews and so got enough money(4) to keep living on the same footing as before. In those days they were in dire need of money. But grandfather began to make a lot of money himself as well and he lived it up on a grander scale than before. His carriage and span of horses, which used to look typically Jewish, now was of lordly appearance. Horses and carriage were presented to him by a landowner; he would drive around in it in his full glory. Grandfather, who had always been an impulsive and impatient man, had of course needed to shed a flood of tears when grandma died, but the moment the wells of tears began to dry up he started thinking about a second wife . Matchmakers soon got wind of it and started beleaguering grandfather around the clock, proposing all kinds of matches, with young women, rich and even pretty ones, women of good lineage and so on. But since their activities would be unacceptable to the family, the matchmakers pretended they were talking about a match for Arn Leyzer's son Yisroel, who was the same age as me. It hadn't occured to any of the children -- as though they didn't know him at all -- that grandfather would want to remarry. Hadn't he had a dearly beloved wife? Wasn't he elderly? Wasn't he surrounded by all his children and seventy grand- and great-grand-children? The thought of a second wife had excited grandfather so much that he forgot all about a match for his son, a matter that had been much on his mind before. As they found out later, he had instructed the matchmakers to get him a woman who was good looking, mature and of good family, all in one. So, after about three months grandfather suddenly came home from somewhere in good spirits and gave orders to have a room kept ready. An important guest was to be expected. Shortly after that he casually said to the children, "I have married. She's a lady of very good family, Yitskhok, the Rov of Karline's daughter, a very pious Jewess." A bit later he told about her in more detail, how she had divorced her husband because he had become a heretic, despite the fact that he was a Jew, quite a handsome, well educated man, and that she had grown up children from him. She, the pious one, had ignored all these blessings and had not wanted to live with an unbeliever. The household was flabbergasted, their spirits fell [alemen iz finster gevorn in di oygn] and they hurried away into the other rooms to have a good cry. They were faced with an irreversible fact, a 'fait accompli', as they say. Grandfather ignored his childrens' anguish and soon left to collect his new wife. After he left, the great wailing broke loose. The crying and screaming were nearly as bad as during the days following grandma's death. They all looked at each other with tears in their eyes, dumbfounded, as if they had to survive an unavoidable disaster. No one could believe that grandfather, having loved grandma so dearly and after acting like the world had come to an end at her death, would forget things so soon and that he at his age, sixty years old, having a house full of children and grandchildren, would bring home a stepmother. But their tears were just tears and achieved nothing. A few days later she arrived, a substantial well dressed Jewish beauty of about forty-five years old, and grandfather ordered the maid to put up the samovar. The children closed themselves off; they did not show their anguish and sorrow to the plump Jewish beauty and they gave her a lukewarm reception. Grandfather felt very uncomfortable about that. He had been eager for his second wife to be warmly received, but he had not been able to demand it. And so the same house that had always been full of life, full of the noise of children and grandchildren, where they had played pranks, laughed, danced and sung, now became silent and somber, as if there were nobody there. No talking was heard, no laughter, no cries, no noise, every sound was kept in check, suppressed, silence reigned. People from the town stopped their visits to the children and even to Arn Leyzer himself. They figured that he was busy with his new wife and took it for granted that he only had to sit with her in the same room to find his pleasure. Meanwhile grandma 'Nemi', as the grandchildren referred to her in public, acted properly towards the children and grandchildren. Obviously she realised that she was dealing with quite a decent household and that she'd better make an effort to accommodate its members in order to prevent the undesirable situation that they would come to dislike her. So her relations with the family were formal and correct and she took on the role of both a mother and a grandmother. After a couple of weeks a guest arrived at grandfather's. It was one of the younger daughters of his wife, a young lady about fourteen years old. Another guest came about two weeks later. Again a daughter, a young lady, aged about seventeen. These daughters remained with their mother. A few months later, a son of the new wife married a daughter of a Kamenits resident. And so grandfather acquired within a short period, not even half a year, a new family. The two daughters grew up at grandfather's and he bestowed a lot of fatherly love on them. The son and daughter-in-law and her parents with their whole family became regular visitors at grandfather's and got the place of honor at his table, so that there was no place left for Beyle Rashe's children and grandchildren, the ones who used to fill the house with happiness and laughter. The bitterness of the children and their feeling of dejection also affected the unity ampng them. They were still close, there was still love among them, but its flame was burning low and in time it cooled down more and more. Grandfather, whose favorite expression used to be, "He who lets down a child never will find rest in his grave,"(5) started taking steps to ensure the future of all his children, one by one. Possibly he saw it as the way to free himself the sooner from their embittered looks which were spoiling his joy with his new wife. He arranged an estate on lease for each of them and he also got one for himself, an estate named 'Pruske'(6), near Vilevinski, four verst from Kamenits; a farmhouse annex vodka distillery. Within half a year he succeeded in settling all of his children on separate estates. They drove off and dispersed and he delighted in his love and her daughters. The place became very quiet. Having gotten rid of the children, he at first remained in Kamenits, though the estate was quite near. It took only an hour to travel up and down to Pruske. However, shortly after, this restless man started hankering after true quiet, solitude, so nothing would disturb his happiness. This shows how much he was bewitched by his new wife.(7) The children all lived on their separate estates and the family ties began to loosen. If it had not been for Yokheved, uncle Yosl's wife , who took the fate of the family to heart and who endeavoured to bind together the torn and weakened last threads, the family unity would certainly have dissolved completely.(8) Now Yokheved knew the true sense of hospitality and was a very compassionate woman. She lived in Babitsh, on an estate eight verst from Kamenits, and the family used to drive down by horse cart to stay with her often. At all times you could find about fifteen people at her place and as one would leave, another would arrive, to be feasted on blintses and lots of dairy products. The hubbub of grandfather's house, though somewhat reduced in volume and size, eventually shifted to her place. People used to amuse themselves there, dance, laugh and joke about 'grand grandma' and her daughters. Another source of hospitality was father's sister Leye, also a clever and good woman. Both within the family and in town they used to say that she was her mother Beyle Rashe reincarnated. Of course, that was a bit of an exaggeration. Her husband, Eliezer Goldberg, was a young man, a scholar, an adherent of the 'Haskole' or 'Enlightenment' movement and a Hebrew poet. If he felt like it, he would compose a song in Hebrew for the occasion of Khanuke or Purim and he also was a bon-vivant, very broadminded. The family used to say that he had a hole in his hand; money was not a serious matter to him. He lived on an estate named Starsheve, near Zostavye. (This, by the way, was the same estate that grandfather had been reluctant to accept when a landowner had offered to sign it over to him as a gift.(9) Although Starsheve was the family's second refuge, its hospitality was inferior to that offered by Yokheved. Leye did not keep any cattle and when the family came down she would not have any milk or butter in store. It must be said that eating meat was not the fashion in those days, except on the Sabbath and even then it was a rarity. But it cannot be denied that Yokheved's blintses formed a great attraction for our folks. She had learned the art to perfection from her mother-in-law, Beyle Rashe, who was famous for them. Those blintses were something; you don't get them that way nowadays. My dear father, who was the oldest child in the family, did not frequent these hospitable places for his own reasons. The young ones thought him over-pious, too sedate, although they loved him dearly and if he ventured to visit Yokheved's house it was a kind of special day to all, like Hasidim having a Rebbe visiting. In his presence they would all make a point of being quiet and calm, no shouting or laughter, no pranks. They would all surround him and he would tell them a story or a joke, in his own special way, which they would all thoroughly enjoy. In winter Yokheved would kill up to thirty geese at a time and make goose fat and cracklings. Then Yokheved would start her special crackling routine. The geese themselves she would have packed in salt in a barrel, and after one month she would serve pickled goose-meat with cracklings. She would also give a portion of cracklings to everyone to take home. Yokheved's cracklings were known far and wide. She also raised turkeys and at Passover all members of the family received a turkey from her.(10) She was a great expert, both in the house and on the farm. She was knowledgeable in all fields, at all places at once, taking care of the cows, calves, horses and the like. She was busy all day and always was up at six o'clock in the morning. Both during summer and winter she would always be toiling, but efficiently, in a casual way, like a true master. In wintertime she often would be at the threshing of the wheat all day, but the comfort of her guests never suffered in the least. Upon waking, all guests would get tea from the samovar with that good cream(11) [slivkes] and pastry. One weakness she had though -- after all, she was a woman -- and it would sometimes be quite a burden to her guests; she liked boasting to everyone about what an expert she was. And she would not hold back in her bragging, but go on and on about her achievements, her cooking, her baking, her skills in business, her knowing how to receive a guest, her cleverness at mending a torn piece of clothing and so on, driving everyone mad with her female boasts. But under the surface, this talk was sometimes meant as a stab at her husband who ostensibly played the lord, while she served him. He enjoyed the good life while she was always slaving away. His bed was made, his table set(12) and he expected her to bow to him. But a great expert she was for sure, and it was easy to forgive her this single shortcoming. During the Days of Awe, when all the villagers came to town for New Year's Day [Rosheshone] and the Day of Atonement [Yonkiper], our family gathered in Kamenits, but their journey was not to grandfather, although he had a big house standing empty there. Everyone rented his own place for Rosheshone and Yonkiper. Grandfather himself came down, too, with his wife and 'daughters'. To keep away from grandfather altogether would not have been in the spirit of the High Holy Days, so after saying prayers, the elder children would pay grandfather a visit to wish him a happy holiday ['gut-yontev'], returning home soon after. They did not come again to grandfather's all day. During the first Rosheshone after grandma had died, the house felt like a deserted city and if there was any movement in grandfather's house during the Rosheshone period, it would have been caused by guests visiting those 'stepdaughters'. My father would spend Rosheshone with the Rebbe of Slonim. Uncle Mortkhe-Leyb, who had been very saddened by his brother's marriage, became estranged from him. He had said nothing about it, but privately he considered it a misstep of the first order and a serious insult and he distanced himself from his brother more and more. Grandfather kept visiting Mortkhe-Leyb, albeit not like before, jovial and at ease. Grandfather was clever and broadminded enough to understand his brother's silent grievance and did his very best to make the best of the situation. For instance, he made it a habit to visit his brother often, while before it was his brother who used to come to him. Yonkiper Eve, which used to be very special at Grandfather's, now passed in silence and boredom. The butcher still came to pay grandfather his respects, but other families failed to deliver their 'kapores' at grandfather's house. All his children got into the habit of doing the kapore ceremony at their own place [hobn zikh opgeshlogn di kapores bay zikh] and sending the already killed kapores [di kapores fartike], the ones they had used themselves for the ceremony [obgeshlogene], off to grandfather -- not like in the old days. Only on Yonkiper Eve did the oldest children go to grandfather's. He would have the same richly decked great table, with all kinds of preserved fruits, tarts, snacks, cookies, nuts and liqueurs on it. But what about the joy, the friendship, brotherhood, true love? There was no real festive atmosphere, it was gloomy, tame; no longer the noise of all the little ones or of the bigger grandchildren, no happy faces. By now all had spread out, scattered, hidden away. Even the blessing on the Eve of Yonkiper was no longer what it used to be. They all used to wait for each other and no one would leave by himself. They would all join in the customary crying, and the crying and wailing of both grownups and children would go up to the seventh heaven... Uncle Berl Bendet(13), who always used to come with all his children and grandchildren to visit grandfather on Rosheshone and Yonkiper, now went to his father Zelig Andarkes instead. The only commodity that possibly was more bountiful than in the old days was tears, silent, suppressed tears. After the holidays everyone went back to his own estate and just drifted apart. It was clear that the great ship had gone down and that everyone floated off by himself on his own piece of wreckage, on a plank broken loose from the once mighty ship. --------------------- Endnotes 1. See Vol. 1, Chapter 28. 2. goyel-umoshie [Hebrew]: helper, assistant (see Isaiah 49: 26; 60: 16). 3. At the outbreak of the Polish uprising in 1863, the Russian Prince Nicholas Michael Muravyev/Muravyov (1796-1866), known as the "hangman," was appointed governor-general of the provinces of Vilna, Grodno, Kovno, Vitebsk, Minsk and Moghilev. He established his headquarters in Vilna and cruelly suppressed the uprising through brutal terror and forced russification (David Assaf, ed. _What I Have Seen_... Tel-Aviv: Diaspora Research Institute, 1998, p. 187 and passim). 4. For a description of the impact the Polish Uprising had on the Kotik family and on the Polish Jews in general, see Vol. 1, Chapter 22. 5. Text: "der zeyde, vos hot shtendik gezogt dos vertl, az "dem zol di erd aroysvarfn di beyner, ver es git op a kind fun zikh." Compare Vol 1, Chapter 6, p. 127, ll. 1,2: "der zeyde hot lib gehat dos vertl: 'di erd zol di beyner aroysvarfn dem, vos git op a kind fun zikh'." 6. Compare Vol. 1, p. 23, ll. 22, 23: Pruske, eight verst [1 verst = 1.06 km] from Kamenits. [This must be a mistake.] See also Vol. 1, Chapter 20, p. 280, ll. 31-35: "far zikh hot er gedungen dem hoyf 'pruske' (faran tvey 'pruskes': eyne hot gehert tsu oserevskin un eyne tsu vilevinskin) ba vilevinskin, fir viarst fun kamenits." 7. See Vol. 1, Chapter 11, pp. 174-175. 8. For a description of the former 'akhdes' in the family, see Vol. 1, Chapter 6, p. 127, l. 7. 9. See Vol. 1, Chapter 10, p. 169, ll. 4-6: "hot er dos mayontikl starsheve gevolt avekshenkn dem zeydn. der zeyde hot zikh ober fun dem opgezogt." 10. Here we have additional evidence that in Eastern Europe in the past century Jews raised turkeys for Passover consumption. When _The Mendele Review_ published Sholem-Aleykhem's animal allegory "Dos porfolk" (see TMR Archive), it sparked a controversty regarding the zoological identity of the protagonists. 11. The cream is served with the tea and the pastry. Another possible reading for 'slivkes' is 'plums' [Pol. _slivka_], in which case confiture made of plums would be meant. 12. See for a description of the 'amolike yomim neroim' Vol. 1, Chapter 14. 13. See Vol. 1, Chapters 12, 13, 22. 3)------------------------------------------------ Date: 31 August 2000 From: Lucas Bruyn Subject: Romanized Table of Contents of Volume One of Kotik's Memoirs Yekheskl Kotik, _mayne zikhroynes_, ershter teyl , Berlin: Klal-Verlag. 1922 . [Second Edition; first edition appeared in Warsaw end of 1912 / beginning of 1913]. [bild funem mekhaber] 3 [vidmung] 5 bimkem hakdome 7 [hakdome tsu sholem-aleykhems brif] 8 Sholem-Aleykhems brif tsu Yekheskl Kotik 9 [Sh.-A.'s letters are dated 10/11-1-13] kapitl I: 13 mayn shtetl. der slup. di amolike "skazke". Visoke. amolike miskhorim. yidn un pritsim. der rusisher un poylisher kloyster. der rusisher un poylisher galekh. Aserevski. Aserevskis yoyresh. der aseser. in vos flegt ba yidn avek der tog. di karge gvirim. di bekovede familyes fun shtetl. Shepsl der klezmer. Mortkhe-Leyb. r' Simkhe-Leyzer. shabes in shtetl. shetlshe intrigantn. amolike makhloykesn. Itshe Sheytes der moser. Zastavye. melamdim. amolik lernen. di goyim. der doktor. royfim. di talmetoyre. di bod. di mikve. der taykh. Kamenitser shvimer. der hegdesh. der rov. magidim. der besoylem. khevre-kedishe. kapitl II: 68 der elter-zeyde r' Velvl. mayn zeyde Arn-Leyzer. r' Yodl. Arn-Leyzers yugnt. der khasene. di bobe Beyle-Rashe. Arn-Leyzers farenderung. der elter-zeydns toyt. der ispravnik. zayne batsiungen tsum zeydn. der zeyde als parnes-khoydesh. der bobes eytses. der zeyde a isborshtshik. der shrayber. di makhloykes tsulib dem shrayber. dem zeydns hashpoe. der zeyde mit di pritsim. der revizor. a nayer isborshtshik. makhloykes in shtot. der nayer ispravnik. mayn zeyde vider isborshtshik. kapitl III: 88 di "behole". Ayzikl der katsev. kapitl IV: 97 mayn foter Moyshe. zayn naygung tsu khsides. der shidekh. r' Leyzer der Grodner rov. mayn muter. mayn foter als heyser khosid. zayn antloyfn tsum rebn. zayn kamf mitn zeydn. di arende. der revizor. Kamenitser khsidim. kapitl V: 116 r' Yisroel. zayn gezang. zayne kompozitsyes. zayn rol tsvishn khsidim. r' Yisroel als matematiker. dos gevet. zayn poylisher patryotizm. zayne marshn lekoved dem poylishn nitsokhn. der opmakh mit a khosid. der gevins. r' Yisroels toyt. kapitl VI: 127 undzer mishpokhe. di bobe. ir libe tsum man. ir shtil un frum bageyn zikh mit mentshn. r' Yodl. shtotishe inyonim. r' Lipe. der tkies-kaf. kapitl VII: 134 der aktsiz. der baron Gintsburg. der ben-yokhed. der skandal mitn aseser. der ispravnik halt dem zeydns tsad. r' Lipe tserisn der tkies-kaf. kapitl VIII: 138 mayn ershter melamed. mayne kashes. der tsveyter melamed. mayn feter Yisroel. der ile Yisroel. vi der ile Yisroel hot undz geshmisn in feld. bay Mote dem melamed. der gehenem. di vinter-ovntn. mayses mit kishef. mayn frumkayt. der dibek. r' Lipe Tsukerman. kapitl IX: 150 di "khapers". Arn-Leybele, Khatskl un Moshke. Yosele. amolike dinst. kapitl X: 160 Zastavye. di groyse makhloykes. di shvue. oysgenart. dem zeydns kamf. der sholem. di pritsim mit di poyerim. dos shmaysn poyerim. kapitl XI: 170 mayn muter. r' Leyzer. mayn muters laydn. der Kamenitser rov. der bobes eytse. kapitl XII: 178 di pritsim. Berl Bendet. Tshekhtshove. Sikhovski. Berl Bendets traykayt. der bilbl. der krig tsvishn dem porets mit der pritste. Bogoslovski. der sof fun bilbl. kapitl XIII: 194 Berl Bendets lebn. zayn tokhters khasene. der poylisher oyfshtand. gevolt shmaysn di pritste. Berl Bendet hot zi aroysgeratevet. Shmuel. kapitl XIV: 201 rosheshone un yonkiper. di eyme. malkes. dos bentshn di kinder. der pakhed in di shuln. bay di khsidim. sukes. simkhes-toyre. yontoyvim bikhlal. vi azoy ba unz flegt tsugeyn a yontev. kapitl XV: 214 mayn foter mit zayn khsides. mayne melamdim. der rebe geshtorbn!. di mesire. tverski. r' Leyb. dos kansenen. kapitl XVI: 230 mayn lernen. amolike mokhre-sforim. mayn ershte khevre. Yisroel Vishnyak. dos ekzaminiren Yisroeln. Yisroels karyere. bay vos er iz geblibn shteyn. kapitl XVII: 237 di vayterdike melamdim. r' Efroim der melamed. zayne 'naye' mayses. amolike malbushim. di aroysgetribene rabonim. undzer libe tsum rebn. kapitl XVIII: 242 mayn "rebe" r' Yitskhok Osher. undzer "lernen". mayn ershte revolutsye. es vakst mayn nomen in shtot. der final. kapitl XIX: 251 der Nishbitser khosid. _Mey Hashelakh_. mayn kashe. der entfer fun di khsidim. di bakantshaft mitn mageds zun. der _Hamagid_. der klots-zeger. undzere farzamlungen. der onhoyb fun mayne gezelshaftlekhe arbetn. kapitl XX: 257 men redt mir shoyn shidukhim. dos farhern mikh. r' Yekheskl dem rovs zun. der yikhes. mayn umbakante kale. der brif. di petsh. mayn feter. dos lebn mit im. dos greytn zikh tsum vikuekh. kapitl XXI: 267 dos manifest fun der poyerim-bafrayung. dos shmaysn di poyerim. der royshem fum manifest oyf di poyerim. di shvere tsayt far yidn. mayn zeyde mit di pritsim. der poylisher oyfshtand. "vzyenta rosya". di poylishe buntovshtshikes. di batsiungen fun di poylishe revolutsionern tsu yidn. Oginski. di unterdrikung fun dem oyfshtand. di nekome fun di poyerim. kapitl XXII: 277 mayn feter als bal-moyfes. Berl Bendet un Sikhovski. der klang vegn moyfes. zayn shem in der svive. dem zeydns plan. di lage fun yidn nokhn oyfshtand. kapitl XXIII: 285 erev mayn khasene. gezen di kale. dos shteln frier dem fus. "glaykh, glaykh!". an eysek mit khsidim un misnagdim bay mayn khasene. di droshe. kapitl XXIV: 289 rosheshone tsum rebn. der kaas fun tatn, vos ikh bin nisht geforn tsum rebn. mayne tsores tsulib khsides. der kamf mit khsides. der vikuekh. di royshem fun vikuekh oyf di hoyzike. kapitl XXV: 297 der vikuekh mit di khsidim. ikh vil forn keyn Volozhin. der foter iz gegn. dos unterhetsn dos vayb kegn mir. mayn vayb vert krank. mir zaynen broygez. undzer sholem. mayn ibergebn zikh tsu lernen. "klaybt, kinderlekh, rendlekh". der "palats". "Khatskls dor". kapitl XXVI: 306 di krom. mayn forn keyn Kobrin. r' Yoshes hoyz. di eydems: der maskl Leyzer un der ile Zalmen-Sender. tsvey hayzer. dos ershte mol baken ikh mikh tifer mitn tanakh. der royshem fun tanakh. di farenderung in mir. dos forn aheym. mayne hoykhe makhshoves. di krom geyt kapoyr. haskole sforim. vider mayn tate. kapitl XXVII: 314 di kholere. amolike zgules tsu kholere. dem rovs toyt. der klang, az er iz lebedik gevorn. ikh zukh a baln oyf der krom. Vakhnovitsh. ikh vil vern rabiner. petsh. kapitl XXVIII: 319 mayn bobes plutslekher toyt. der royshem funem toyt oyf der mishpokhe un oyf dem shtetl. ir levaye. dem zeydns yomer. dos zitsn shive. der bobes groyser nomen. ire sheyne maysim. undzer mishpoke tsefalt zikh nokh ir toyt. kapitl XXIX: 331 khsides un misnagdes. vos far a rayts ligt es in khsides vos hot oyfgerirt di gantse yidishe velt? misnagdes als shite. der _Shulkhn-Orekh_. di khesroynes fun misnagdes. khsides. der Bal-Shem. di tsugenglekhkayt fun khsides far ale shikhtn fun folk. r' Moyshe-Khayim Lutstatu. _Mesiles Yeshorim_. di demokratishe oyffirung fun khsidim. der rebe un di khsidishe simkhes. di khesroynes fun khsides. der sakhakl. Inhalt 345 - 347 ______________________________________________________ End of _The Mendele Review_ 04.013 Leonard Prager, editor Subscribers to _Mendele_ (see below) automatically receive _The Mendele Review_. 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